The miR-26 microRNA is a small non-coding RNA that is involved in regulating gene expression. The miR-26 family is composed of miR-26a-1, miR-26a-2 and miR-26b located in chromosomes 3, 12 and 2, respectively. Pre-miR-26 with stem-loop structure is processed into mature miR-26 by a series of enzymes of intranuclear and intracytoplasm. The mature miRNA of miR-26a-1 and miR-26a-2 possesses the same sequence, with the exception of 2 different nucleotides in mature miR-26b. miR-26 appears to be a vertebrate specific microRNA and has now been predicted or experimentally validated in many vertebrate species.