Detail for TGFβ isoforms

Full Name

Transforming growth factor beta-1, 2, 3

Gene Name


Related Disease

  • Breast Cancer [ref.1,3]
  • Colorectal cancer [ref.2]

Therapy Method


Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. TGFB2 has suppressive effects on interleukin-2 dependent T-cell growth.


  • [1] The BMP2/7 heterodimer inhibits the human breast cancer stem cell subpopulation and bone metastases formation.
    Buijs, J. T., et al. (2012). Oncogene 31(17): 2164-2174.. [ 21996751 ]
  • [2] Hypoxic tumor microenvironment activates GLI2 via HIF-1α and TGF-β2 to promote chemoresistance in colorectal cancer.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2018 Jun 26;115(26):E5990-E5999. [ 29891662 ]
  • [3] Crosstalk between TGF-β signaling and miRNAs in breast cancer metastasis.
    Tumour Biol.2016 Aug;37(8):10011-9. [ 27153853 ]

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